History of Cuba: 10,000 BC through 1991

Cuba, the Beginning

 

 

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“The history of Cuba, at least the well known, begins in the year 1492 with the supposed Discovery of America, since the primitive inhabitants of the country only reached an equivalent cultural development to the neolithic-mesolithic, and contrary to other cultures of the continent as the Mayan, Aztec or Inca, they didn’t leave visible tracks in the country, unless in some name’s places and in some indigenous words that were added to Spanish of Cuba.

 

According to the specialists of the topic, the man’s presence in Cuba has begun approximately for 10 000 years behind (8 000 a.c.) and one almost has the certainty that the first human groups arrived from North America, either from the costs of the Florida or crossing Bahamas and of there to Cuba, or both routes. These first human groups were paleolithic hunters that moved until the outlet of the Missisippi after the hunt and of there to Florida.

 

 

First migratory current (10 000 years behind, 8 000 a.c.), coming from Florida and probably also using the route of Bahamas.

 
Typical features: american indigenous of mongoloid origin: wide face, prominent cheekbones, half stature, without artificial deformation of the skull.

 

Cultural stadium: they dominated the fire and the techniques for carved of the stone, their fundamental activities were the gathering and the fishing.

 

Habitat: costs and rivers, the penetration toward the interior of the territory was scarce, they lived outdoors.

 

Second migratory current (4 500 years behind, that is to say 2 500 a.c.), coming from Center and South America, where today are Nicaragua, Honduras and Venezuela.
Typical features: american indians of mongoloid origin, neither practiced the artificial deformation of the skull.

 

Cultural stadium: their fundamental activities were the platform fishing and the gathering. They didn’t dominate the techniques for carved of the stone, they made instruments with marine shells.

 

Habitat: in coast areas, they lived so much in caves and rocky coats as outdoors. They settled basically in the Peninsule of Guanahacabibes (western end of the country), the Zienaga (Marsh) of Zapata (center) and Island of Pines (south-occident), and they spread later until the oriental region for the south coast.

 

Third migratory current (2 500 years behind, 500 a.c.) For this time the migratory moviemientos was increased substantially and they arrive in Cuba two different human groups:

 

– groups of residents coming from Florida and the valley of the Missisippi that settle in the north coast of today Matanzas province and they spread to the east and west, being ended up also settling down in the north of Havana and Villa Clara, in the south of the Peninsule of Guanahacabibes, in Camaguey and in the costs of Baracoa (in the Cuban east). These communities survived until the arrival of the Spaniards at the end of XV century.

 

– groups coming from the Antilles, settle down in the oriental region of the country, they are attributed the introduction of important cultivations like the tobacco, the corn and the yucca.

 

In essence these communities were advancing toward a culture but evolved and although their fundamental activities continued being the fishing and the gathering, they were introducing technical improvements that allowed improvements in the conditions of life and feeding.

 

 

Fourth migratory current (1 500 years behind, 500 d.c.)
Toward that time a new human group begins a lot to settle in Cuba with a culture more evolved that the previous ones, known later as the tainos and that they constituted the more important populational group to the arrival of the Spaniards. The tainos settled in Cuba in two waves:

 

the first one, between the years 500 and 1 000 d.c.

 

the second, from the year 1 000 d.c. until half-filled of the XV century

 

The Tainos constituted a cultural-ethnic complex of reach Antillean and not alone Cuban. They are part of the family of the arawaks of South American origin and they arrived in the Biggest Antilles through the Smallest Antilles.

 

Typical features: american indigenous of mongoloid origin, of low stature and they practiced the artificial cranial deformation, seemingly with aesthetic ends.

 

Habitat: near areas to rivers and lagoons, as much in the costs as inside the country, extended from the oriental region to Havana and Matanzas, in the occident.

 

Cultural stadium: they practiced the agriculture like fundamental activity, they elaborated bread of yucca flour (called casabe), they knitted cotton hammocks and they lived at wooden homes of collective use.

 

The agricultural economy had as consequence a remarkable demographic growth and it was bigger than all the previous communities, a territorial stabilization of the populations in appropriate places for the cultivations and lastly, a development of the social organization.

 

To the arrival of the Spaniards to Cuba (October 27, 1492) the neolithic groups of origin arawak prevailed (tainos), the biggest populations concentrated on the oriental area of the country and they cohabited with the siboneyes and guanahatabeyes (located these in the western end), excluded groups of the Mesolithic.

 

The demographic calculations estimate toward the year 1510 an indigenous population of 112 000 inhabitants, 90% of which were tainos, with a hope of life of between 20 and 25 years when being born. Some few years later, toward the 1 540, the indigenous population was of hardly some hundreds of individuals; the violent crash of two cultures, the regime of “encomiendas” to that were subjected, the illnesses introduced by the Europeans (especially the flu) for which the natives didn’t have natural defenses because they were not known in America and the inability for adaptarce to the new forms of life that were imposed him they put an end in few years to the culture and the aboriginal population from Cuba.

 

Today their racial tracks can notice in some areas of the oriental region and its cultural tracks in the presence of words in the language of the island and in some name’s places (Cuba, Baracoa, Bayamo, Sagua, Havana, they are examples of these words).

 

 

 

The History of Cuba – Part One

The aboriginal population from Cuba can be divided in 3 fundamental cultural complexes related with 3 peoples: the guanahatabeyes, inhabitants of the coasts of the occident of the island and they were distinguished for the employment of the shell for the making of their utensils and were fishermen and recolectores basically; the tainos, but early, they stood out in the pottery and constituted a mainly agricultural people and were extended for the whole country starting from the east; finally, the siboneyes that developed an intermediate culture. In general the cultural development of these people was very low and they didn’t hardly leave tracks.

 

Cristofolo Colombo discovered Cuba on October 27, 1492, and gives it the name of Juana in the honour of the first-born son of Catholic Kings, in that first trip recognized the east of the island and in its second trip the southern coast traveled advancing a lot toward the occident, however, until its death he believed – or he wanted to believe – that Cuba was not an island but rather it was part of the continent. Sebastián Ocampo is owed the first complete turn-around of the island, carried out in 1509, although already from 1498 it was believed that it was an island as a result of a secret trip attributed to Alonso of Ojeda or Vicente Yañez Pinzón accompanied by Juan de la Cosa. Sebastián Ocampo’s turn-aroud navigation cleared all the doubts about the insularity of Cuba and also clear the mystery halo that wrapped it, according to him -Ocampo – the indigenous population was peaceful, and exist good cultivation lands and good bays like those of Jagua (Cienfuegos) and Havana and this knowledge opened finally the route to the colonization of the island.

 

In 1510 the colonization of the island began with Diego Velazquez’s expedition who founded in this year the village of Baracoa, in 1515 the expeditions of Pánfilo of Narváez and Juan of Grijalva had already conquered the scarce resistance of the natives of interior of the country and the villages of Trinidad, Sancti Spiritus and Havana were founded and later on Puerto Prince’s villages (today Camaguey) and Santiago de Cuba, erected first capital by Diego Velázquez, first governor from Cuba until its death in 1524. Velázquez organized the first mining exploitations and he received the first black slaves taken to the island to substitute the work of the natural ones, of which were only for year 1540 some few hundred from an initial population estimated in around 120 000 inhabitants on 1500, exterminated by the bad treatments, the measles, the pock and other illnesses brought to America by Spaniards and for which didn’t have the aboriginal natural defenses.

 

During the remaining years of the XVI century, Cuba is used as base for the conquest and colonization of the continent, this way in 1513 Juan Ponce de León discovers and it begins the exploration and conquest of Florida and in 1519 Hernán Cortés goes out of Havana with the enterprise of the conquest of Mexico, after which Havana becomes the natural point to supply the return fleets to Spain increasing its importance in the context of the New World. This century also was characterized by frequent attacks of pirates and corsairs – Havana was attacked in 1538 and 1555 and Santiago de Cuba in 1554 -, for the construction of the aqueduct of Havana and their elevation to the city range in 1592, the termination of the construction of the Castillo (Castle) del Morro, a fort that still dominates the entrance of the bay of Havana; and mainly for the creation of the sugar industry already at the end of century, what resulted in the beginning of the massive import of slaves from Africa.

 

Havana, transformed into the point of meeting of fleets that made the voyage between the American continent and the metropolis, progressed quickly and already in 1607 was designated the capital of the island officially. In this same year and with the purpose of strengthening the development of the oriental part of the island the Spanish Crown divided the country in two governments: Havana in the occident and Santiago de Cuba, in the oriental region.

 

Already from principles of XVII century the cultivation of the tobacco charges a great commercial importance but it has for strong regulations imposed by the Metropolis that penalizing with death to those who sold tobacco to foreigners. The establishment in this century of English, French and Dutch colonies in neighboring territories produced a worsening of the piracy with attacks to Santiago de Cuba in 1662 and Puerto Príncipe -in the center of the island – in 1688; already at the end of century, in 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick puts outside of law the bucanerism and it finishes in great measure with the attacks of pirates and buccaneers.

 

During the century XVIII was founded the University of Havana in 1728 and in 1733 Felipe V ‘s centralist politics subordinated Santiago de Cuba to Havana. The cultivation and industry of the tobacco continued being developed and the monopoly of the tobacco exercised by the Crown produced several rebellions of the vegueros in 1717, 1720 and 1723. In 1733 appears the first play of Cuban author, El Príncipe Jardinero y Fingido Cloridano, and in 1740 was created the Real Company of Trade, another company to monopolize the whole import and export trade in the island and that soon won a very bad reputation among the Cubans.

 

In January, 1762 King George III of England declared the war to Spain and in June of same year Englishs occupied Havana after several days of hard battle, and although they didn’t extend the occupation to the rest of the island, the liberalization measures in the trade that they introduced was extended for the whole territory. Finally, in 1763 Spaniards and Englishmen agreed to exchange Florida – in hands of Spain – for Havana.

 

At the end of this century, in 1774, the population from Cuba belonged to 172 620 inhabitants: 96 440 whites, 31 847 black free and 44 333 black slaves that worked in 500 sugar factories. The production of sugar arrived for the year 1795 to the 14 000 tons.

 

The XIX century begins with a strong increment in the production of sugar that was already of 34 000 tons for year 1805, this period of the Napoleonics Wars took prosperity to Cuba in spite of the restrictive commercial measures imposed by the Crown. The first movement for the independence of the island was directed by Román de la Luz Silveira, between 1809 and 1810, but it was early discovered. In 1812 a rebellion of slaves leading for the liberate (free slave) José Antonio Aponte was drowned in blood, the shade of the Revolution of Haiti worried the white population from Cuba.

 

Cuba sent two deputies there to the Cortes of Cádiz and the Constitution elaborated it governed in the island between 1812 and 1814. In 1823 Fernando VII imposed again in Spain and their colonies the absolutism and with this it made worse the differences and opposition among Creoles and Spaniards that are made every time but clear. Of 1821 at 1836 the aspirations of freedom of the Cubans were guided toward the separatism or in favor of the liberal movements of the metropolis. This way in 1823 the Cuban poet José María Heredia and José Francisco Lemus organize the secret society ¨Soles y Rayos de Bolivar¨ wich objective was to take the independence to the island; for this year the politics of the United States toward Cuba is also clear in its secretary of State John Quincy Adams words who said: “Those islands (Cuba and Puerto Rico) they are natural appendixes of the continent of North America, and one of them (Cuba) almost can it turns of our costs, for a multitude of considerations it is becoming a momentous object for the political and commercial interests of the Union…”

 

In 1827 the census bring a population of 704 000 inhabitant: 311 000 whites, 286 000 black slaves and 106 000 black free and mestizos. There were also 1 000 ingenios (factories of sugar), 30 090 ranches, 5 534 vegas (farms) of tobacco and 2 067 plantations of coffee. The island was one of more rich regions of planet.

 

Among the years of 1823 and 1840 the differences of political and economic interests begins to develop in way every time but growing among the Spaniards (“peninsulares”, born in Iberian Peninsule) and the Creoles (born in Cuba from Spanish or African ancestros), in 1830 Spain increases the taxes in damage of the Creoles and denies their access to the government, what doesn’t in fact contribute to improve their dissatisfaction.

 

Already for the year 1842 the Official Census bring a population of 1 037 624 inhabitants reported: 448 291 whites, 152 838 black free and 436 495 black slaves. In this time the Cuban exports to United States were twice as much that to Spain and the sugar country properties had been increased until near 800 from some 400 for the year of 1790. In 1848 United States President, Polk, offers to Spain 100 millions of USD for Cuba, Spain refuses to sell the island.

 

Between 1845 and mainly up to 1855 the freedom movements was associated to the ideals of the annexation with United States, which even extended among many of the leaders of the first war of independence. Narciso López leading 3 annexionist expeditions in 1849, 1850 and 1851, captured in the last one and in front of the shooting platoon he screamed bravely. “My death won’t change the destination of Cuba.”

 

In 1852 the Spaniards discovered the “Conspiración de Vuelta Abajo (Pinar del Rio)” an annexionist conspiracy, some plotters are able to escape to United States but others are captured and in its majority condemned to death.

 

In 1853 was born in Havana José Martí who would become the Apostle of the Independence of Cuba with the time.

 

The dissatisfaction among Creoles for excessive taxes, the restrictions to free trade and their exclusion of the government continued in increase in the decades of the 50 ‘ and 60 ‘ of the XIX century and this would starting of War of Ten Years.

 

The War of Ten Years began October 10, 1868 with the Scream of Yara (Grito de Yara) given by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, a rich and learned farmer of oriental region, and it extended until May of 1878 when was signed the Pact of the Zanjon among the Cuban and Spanish forces, pact that was refuted by the General Antonio Maceo in the well know “Protesta of Baragua” called himself and not accepted by other heroes of the war like General Calixto García. The war got rid fundamentally obviously in the oriental and central region of the island where the cane plantations and the economy suffered an enormous damage, being practically intact the occident of the country.

 

The war finished with promises on the part of Spain of reformations and a bigger autonomy for the island, in the following years almost all these promises were frustrated although the slavery was abolished finally in 1886. The human balance of the war:

 

Spain, ended up having an army of 160 000 men, the losses belonged to 40 000 soldiers dead, great part for illnesses like the yellow fever and the dysentery, common in those times

 

Cuba, ended up having a total of 25 000 soldiers, casuelties were 15 000 soldiers, in total the country had the loss of 200 000 human lives

 

Among August of 1879 and August of 1880 gets rid the call Tiny War shortly, leading by General Calixto García and begun in Santiago de Cuba, it began prematurely and was not successful.

 

 

 

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History of Cuba – Part Two

 

The years between 1880 and 1886 were of the constant conspiracy activity of patriots of the Ten Years War, Spain has unfulfilled with its promises. Men that commanded the previous war like Maximum Gómez, Antonio Maceo, Calixto García (now in prison in Spain), Carlos Roloff, Flor Crombet and othesr, they make enormous efforts in the collection of money, buy weapons and organizational movements but the frustration and weakness generated by the last long war have not still been overcome by the Cuban’s people. In December of 1886 Maximum Gómez announces the end of the revolutionary movement, also ballasted by the fact of being only leading for military and for the differences arisen between Gómez and Maceo and between Maceo and Crombet.

 

In 1892 José Martí, who didn’t participate in the previous war but that has already suffered prison and exile for their conspiracy activities and he takes several years organizing the Cubans inside and outside of Cuba, found the Cuban Revolutionary Party in Cayo Hueso (United States, where it resides from 1881) whose objective is the freedom of Cuba and also found Patria, a newspaper that responds to the same objetives. In 1893 Maximum Gómez it is designated as military boss of the new revolutionary movement and Martí offers to Maceo participation in the leadership.

 
February 24, 1895 begin the Independence War with the Scream of Baire, a small village to some 80 kms from Santiago de Cuba, the second city in importance in the country, and the war will extend until August of 1898 when finally with the Treaty of Paris the island reaches its independence that won’t become effective up to May 20, 1902. In the first months of the war José Martí dies (May 19, 1895) and Tomás Estrada Palma occupied as president of the Cuban Revolutionary Party. Later, Salvador Cisneros Betancourt is elect as President of the Republic in Weapons and General Maximo Gómez reaffirmed as General in Boss of the Ejército Libertador. At the end of 1897 General Antonio Maceo died in combat (December 7) near Punta Brava, province of Havana, already in this date Spain had in the island 240 000 regular troops and 60 000 irregular troops.

 

In April of 1898 United States that in spite of the sympathies of their people toward the rebels had stayed neutral in the war, enters in it soon after the explosion that destroyed Maine, a US war ship anchored in the Bay of Havana, beginning this way the Hispanic-Cuban-American war. In August of the same year an armistice is signed between Spain and United States putting end to the hostilities. In spite of their sacrifice for 3 years and of having combatted next to the American troops, the Cuban forces was not allowed to participate in the signature of the armistice in August neither in the signature of the Treaty of Paris in December that finished the war and assures the independence of Cuba. To the moment to enter the United States in the war the Ejército Libertador (Mambises) dominated completely in the rural areas of the island and the Spanish Army controlled the cities and towns, Spain already showed signs of exhaustion and the victory of the freedom cause of Cubans was close.

 

The balance of the war:

 

Spain: ended up having up to 270 000 soldiers in the island, they have around 44 000 casualties, 90% for illnesses.
Cuba: the Ejército Libertador ended up having 50 000 soldiers (with alone 50% armed) and its definitive casualties were 9 000 soldiers.
For the country the human and materialslosses were enormous, it is calculated that near 250 000 casualties because of the war, Cuba that had 1 631 687 inhabitants in the year 1887 and for the natural growth it should have reached in the year 1899 around the 1 800 000 inhabitants, really had in the census of that year a total of 1 572 747 inhabitants, never until then a country had lost its population’s such proportion in a war. The material losses: got lost 90% of the bovine livestock, one of the main wealth of the country; 90 000 farm properties and 530 000 hectares of lands cultivated in 1887 they decreased at 6 000 and 364 000, respectively; of but of 1 000 sugar sugar factories in 1887 they existed alone 207 in 1899.

 

Between January 1ro, 1899 and May 20, 1902 the island is occupied by the United States with Leonardo Wood like governor, if United States still had annexionist ideas with regard to the island, they were abandoned when in the first elections that take place (for municipal positions) the party that pled for the annexation (Party Democratic Union) obtains a minimum of the votes in front of the parties in favor of the independence. During the North American occupation they were carried out big advances in the reparation of the island, including the almost total erradicación of the yellow fever taking like base the Cuban sage’s studies Carlos J. Finlay, and in the organization of the educational system, of sanity, of mail and administrative.

 

May 20, 1902 was born the republic with Tomás Estrada Palma like first president and with the Costitución 1901 like artificial base to which the Enmienda Platt was added that gave United States the right to intervene in the Cuban matters and that was accepted by the independentistas like a smaller evil. The Platt Amendment was effective until the year 1934 when was abolished by means of the Permanent Treaty of 1934.

 

In 1905 General Maximo Gomez dies in Havana and next year sigiente, in 1906, the first North American intervention that will be prolonged up to 1909 takes place. The intervention takes place at the request of president Estrada Palma like consequence of rebellions that are happened in the country against its unpopular and fraudulent reelection for a second period.

 

The census of 1907 throws a population of 2 048 980 inhabitants. In this year arise the Independent Party of Color that accuses to the Republic of discriminating against the black population, rumors of a racial war run.

 

In 1912 the second North American intervention takes place in the island against president’s José Miguel Gómez desires and using like pretext the necessity to protect the life and American citizens’ properties before lifts that have been raised in the oriental region.

 

Between 1919 and 1920 takes place the called dances of the millions when the sugar reaches unprecedented prices due to the ruin of the industry of sugar of beet of Europe as a consequence of the recently finished war, the sugar reached a maximum price of 22.51 cent of dollar the pound and the production of the harvest of 1919-1920 was sold in $1,022,000,000 (more money that all the crops meetings from 1900 at 1914).

 

Between 1903 and 1924 the national income of Cuba multiplies by 4 and the cattle raising end up having 4 millions of heads of bovine with a estimate population of 3 345 000 inhabitants, the economy stays in expansion up to 1931, when the world economic crisis is already a fact.

 

An important part of the sugar industry and the plantations of cane of sugar are in hands of North American companies and the main trade centers in hands of Spaniards, the alone Cubans manage the threads of the political one and they are not few voices those that urge to revert this situation, the population’s pressure it is strong in that sense. In 1925 Carlos Baliño and Julio Antonio Mella found the Communist Party and at the end of that year is elect president Gerardo Machado with a political platform of nationalist court and the slogan of “water, highways and schools.”

 

The first two years of the government of Machado filled the hope to the Cuban population, the government was hones, it was legislated to regulate the sugar industry, to diversify the agriculture and to protect the Cuban products and began a vast program of public works and construction of highways (among them the Central Highway that communicates the occident island to east and that it is still nowadays in active) that gave work to thousands of Cuban. However very soon their government derived toward the dictatorship what sank to Cuba in one of his worst economic and social crises together to the crash of the Bag of New York of 1929. The constant manifestations of students and workers against the government and the limitless repression that it exercised ends in 1933 in a general strike that affects the complete country and a rising of the armed forces that force finally Machado to run away.

 

Gerardo Machado is substitute by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes (son of legendary first president’s of the Republic in Weapons) as provisional president and he also has to give up when in September of the same year of 1933 Fulgencio Batista it heads a revolt in the army (know like the Revolt of the Sergeants) and soon taking the control of the country. Begins the Government of the 100 Days then with Ramón Grau San Martin like president and Antonio Guiteras like vice-president that introduced radical changes in the Cuban society in spite of their short duration.

 

In January of 1934 Fulgencio Batista that had been promoted colonel and boss of the Army, it causes the fall of the revolutionary government of Grau San Martin-Guiteras. From that moment and up to 1940, Batista controls the power and he names presidents Carlos Mendieta (1934-1935), Miguel Mariano Gómez (1936) and Federico Laredo Brú (1936-1940). During 1934 an agreement is also reached with the United States by means of which puts on term to the Platt Amendment, the nation of the north it conserves the Naval Base of Guantánamo.

 

In 1940 the Constitution of 1940 supported by all the political sectors of the included country the Popular Socialist Party arises (communist), in its moment one of those more progressive of the world. Begins then a period of governments’ democratic succession that would last 12 years, period that was characterized partly by the prevailing political corruption and the gansterism of political court, the economy of the island, however, goes in increase.

 

 

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The History of Cuba – Part Three.

March 10, 1952 Batista play a military blow against Prío Socarrás’s government, breaking the constitutional order. He receives the support of militaries forces and is proclaimed president. United States recognizes its government. Although the blow was bloodless, the student sectors begin a stage of protests.

 

In 1953, lawyer Fidel Castro heads an attack against the barracks Moncada of the oriental city Santiago de Cuba, about 900 kilometers to the east of Havana, with dozens of dead of both sides. Castro is arrested and convict to 15 years of prison. In 1955 the rebels, included Castro, were amnestied. In December of 1956, Castro heads a landing of rebellious forces of the Movement 26 of Julio coming from Mexico. The guerilla fight begins in the Sierra Maestra’s mountains, in the oriental region and in the cities and towns begans too a not less strong fight of urban guerrilla, in particular in Havana and Santiago de Cuba. In 1958 the United States retires the military help to Batista’s government that already for 2 years has derived in a bloody dictatorship that pursues and murderous opponents without adjustment to law some.

 

At the end of the fifties ‘ the North American capital is predominant in the economy of Cuba and it controls the one:

 

90% of the mining production
80% of the public services
50% of the railroads
40% of the production of sugar
25% of the bank deposits

 

In 1958, however, the Cuban economy has continued its growing acting and the country is located among the first ones 22 of the world for the level of its population’s life that is of approximately 6 000 000 of inhabitants.

 

In the dawn of January 1, 1959 Batista with their relatives and close officials abandons escaping toward Dominican Republic and leaving a provisional government that soon crumbles, in next days the rebellious forces occupy the cities and towns of the country without resistance and the day 2 of January Commandant Camilo Cienfuegos enters in Havana, occupying it. Fidel Castro enters in Havana January 8, 1959 and is named First Minister in February. Almost immediately the Revolutionary Government implements a politics of nationalization of foreign and national companies and a law of Agrarian Reformation is signed that enter in contradiction with the interests of United States. Parallelly begins to produce an approach then with the Soviet Union and the call socialist field (communist), Anatas Mikoyan, Minister of External Relationships of the Soviet Union visits Havana in February of 1960 signing commercial agreements and in May of the same year diplomatic relationships are settles among the 2 countries. The United States takes economic and political measures, it imposes the economic embargo to the island (effective even nowadays) in October of 1960, it breaks up diplomatics relationships with Cuba in January of 1961 and offer support to the against government groups that inside of and outside of the island seek to overthrow the government. President Eisenhower orders to study and to plan actions, included armed, to put an end to Fidel Castro’s government.

 

From the same year 1959 a strong migratory current of Cuba has begun toward United States that deprives the country of 50% of the doctors and teachers in the first years and that with the step of the years it will end up being of more of 1 000 000 of Cuban.

 

In April, 1961 armed Cuban exiles’ trained by United States (around 1 500 men) carry out a landing in Bay of Pigs (Playa Girón, in Cuba) that is defeated in 3 days by the government forces. Parallelly already a strong against government movement that ends up having guerrillas in all the counties of the country exists although, they were particularly strong in the Sierra of the Escambray, in the center-southern region of the island that won’t be defeated definitively until final of 1965. In April, 1961 Fidel Castro’s declares the socialist character of the Cuban Revolution.

 

October 14, 1962 begin the call Crisis of the Missiles (Crisis of October, in Cuba) when an airplane of North American recognition discovers the construction of locations for nuclear missiles of medium reach near San Cristobal, in the county of Pinar del Rio and it finishes October 27 with the Soviet commitment of taking the missiles of Cuba and the North American out of not invading it. The world was never so near the nuclear war as in those 13 days.

 

In 1968 what was known as the revolutionary offensive rushes and 55 000 small companies and trade are nationalized being starting from that moment all the production goods and services in state hands, with the exception of small properties of peasants that were benefitted by the Agrarian Reformation of 1960 or that they were already proprietors to the victory of the Cuban Revolution.

 

In 1976 a new Constitution is adopted that it recognizes the socialist character of the Cuban state and among other changes it defines a new political-administrative division creating 14 counties (instead of the 6 that there was until then) but the special municipality of Island of the Youth (Island of Pines).

 

The social politicians go to a continuous improvement of the access and quality of the services of health and educational mainly (free both), but however the acting of the economy is precarious.

 

In 1991 with the disappearance of the call Socialist Field (communist block) and the Soviet Union the country loses 85% of its trade and international help abruptly and falls in a strong economic crisis that reaches its culminating point in the years of 1993 and 1994. The government implements certain measures of liberalization of the economy (markets agricultural peasants free, small private companies of services, as restaurants, cafeterias, etc, individual work self-employed (until then alone the work was admitted with state companies) and laws are promulgated that allow the foreign investment in certain economic sectors of the country and always in association with state companies. The measures palliated the economic crisis and they have allowed a certain recovery degree to the national economy.”

 

 

Source Link: https://www.hicuba.com/eng/history-3.htm

 

 

 

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